This issue is getting rather complex, but I returned to the machine today to try to get closer look. I ran the installer with logging output (the file, sanitized to remove the username, is attached).
I have not finished slogging through the log file, but I can indeed see the lines indicating that the mapi svc path cannot be found:
I wasn't quite sure how to resolve this issue (fixmapi should work, shouldn't it? It did not seem to this time).
IsBESInstall. IsBESInstall read as 0
CA LOG: UILevel = 5
CA LOG: Entering GetMAPISvcPath.
CA LOG: mapistub.dll path - C:\Windows\system32\mapistub.dll.
CA LOG: Failed to get path for mapisvc.inf using MSIOfficeLCID.
CA LOG: Failed to get path for msmapi32.dll using the FGetComponentPath function.
CA LOG: This may indicate a broken Office installation.
CA LOG: Entering GetOutlookVersion.
CA LOG: OUTLOOK_APPLICATION_VERSION_KEY - Outlook.Application.14.
CA LOG: Outlook Major Version = 14l.
CA LOG: Failed to get outlook minor version, continuing with major version only.
CA LOG: Leaving GetOutlookVersion.
Failed to retreive MAPISVC path. Outlook version is 14. Installation will abort
CA LOG: Leaving GetMAPISvcPath.
CA LOG: Aborting profile creation as profile creation event never got set
CustomAction CreateDefaultProfileCA returned actual error code 1603 (note this may not be 100% accurate if translation happened inside sandbox)
Action ended 15:42:16: CreateDefaultProfileCA. Return value 1603.
I was, and still am, a bit stumped--but I decided to do a bit more checking on the Outlook install to make sure everything seemed kosher.
The c:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office12 and Office14 folders were virtually empty, and I found no trace of outlook.exe on the system anywhere. I discovered that this installation is a click-to-run installation, an animal I have yet to see in the wild. Apparently, the shortcuts execute "c:\program files\common files\microsoft shared\virtualization handler\cvh.exe" " Microsoft Outlook 2010 9014006204090000" which leads to an executable on a mounted drive or partition to which the user has no read access. I am a bit worried that this might be part of the problem, though I am seeking a workaround. Any help or tips would be greatly appreciated!